1) Revolutions

2) Retrofuturism

3) The history of robotics

4) The beginnings of robotics in agriculture

5) Smart farm

6) Robotic farm

7) Alga Oasis


9) Bioplastics

10) 3D printing

11) Vertical systems

12) Genetics

14) PROB 10

15) Plough blade

16) ELIZA 

17) Primoco UAV One 150

18) Tertill

19) ROBOT K-3


21) SPIDER Autonomous 2.0

22) FarmBot Genesis 1.6 (RS)

23) Lely Astronaut

25) Photobioreactor

27) Choco printer

28) Vertical system 1SM

29) Vertical system 5SV

30) The hexagonal planters

31) Agrointelli Robotti

32) ZU1 food processor


34) Victoria Robotorum 


1) Revolutions


Agriculture 1.0

Animal power

9000 BC


Industry 1.0

Combustion engines, machinery



Industry 2.0

Electricity, mass production



Agriculture 2.0

Combustion engines, machinery



Industry 3.0

Robotics, information technologies



Agriculture 3.0

Electrotechnics, mass production



Industry 4.0

Artificial Intelligence, Autonomous Machines, Digital technologies



Agriculture 4.0

Artificial Intelligence, Autonomous Machines, Digital technologies



2) Retrofuturism

2.1) A remote-controlled farm centre with a wide and flat screen, a vision from 1931 

2.2) A vision of a fully electrified farm from 1922

Legend: 1) saw 2) tree puller 3) sowing machine 4) cultivator 5) water pump 6) plough 7) hydroelectric power plant 8) cultivator 9) silo 10) thresher 11) milking machine 12) corn cutter 13) fodder grinder 14) hay 15) automatic feeders 16) hay lift 17) reflector 18) private telephone 19) reflector 20) mobile pump 21) dairy 22) egg heater 23) bottling room 24) separator 25) butter churn 26) clock 27) incubator 28) heater 29) hatchery 30) water heater 31) well 32) compressor 33) automatic pump 34) cellar 35) refrigeration 36) kitchen 37) laundry 38) bathroom 39) dining room 40) pipe in wet soil 41) public telephone line 42) lighting 43) farmer’s house 44) radio antenna (official agricultural news) 45) battery charger 46) garage 47) wood cutter 48) circular saw 

2.3) A 1903 vision of an electrified French farm in the year 2000

Retrofuturism is a movement in literature and visual arts that depicts ideas of the based on current knowledge of science and technology. The resulting concepts attempt to predict what society will look like in the near or distant future. The term was first used in 1983 by Lloyd Dunn.

2.4) A voice-controlled robotic mower, a vision from 1958

2.6) A superfarm from 2020, a vision from 1979 

2.8) A robotic farm, a vision from 1982

2.9) A vision of a robotic fruit picker, 1980s, USSR


3) The history of robotics

The word robot was coined by Josef Čapek in 1920 for the science fiction drama R.U.R. by Karel Čapek. The term was used for various fictional and real devices. It was not until 1954 that the American designer George C. Devol built a robotic arm, which he patented in 1961. From 1962 onwards, the robots Unimate and Versatran were launched to be used mainly in the automotive industry. As early as 1974, there were 800 robots used in industrial production in the USA and 1,500 in Japan. The development of robotics for industry was an important prerequisite for future development of autonomous machines for agriculture.


3.1) David Mills is getting a cup of coffee from the robot Versatran 500, Hawker Siddeley factory in Hatfield, 1968

3.2) Unimate, the first industrial robot, deployed in 1962 in General Motors

3.3) Computer-controlled robot Unimate Puma 500, 1986 

3.5) Assembly line in Rover, 1990s


4) The beginnings of robotics in agriculture

In the autumn of 1983, a scientific conference was held in Tampa (USA) that provided the first summary of the development of machine vision, sensors and robotic technologies in agriculture. By the late 1970s and early 1980s the prices of microprocessors had fallen enough to start mass production, and at the same time the performance of processors had increased to the point where they could be used in applications for smart agriculture. Despite this, most of the machines remained in the form of prototypes and experimental devices. For example, in 1975 the price of an IBM 5100 was $20,000, while in 1981 IBM 5150 sold for $3,005.

4.2) Fruit picking robot

The robot with machine vision was developed at the French Institute of Agricultural Engineers in Montpellier (CEMAGREF) as a device that required minimal manual work. The robot had three main parts: a telescopic arm with an adjustable effector, a sensor – CCD camera placed along the axis of the telescopic arm, and a computer as a control system. The telescopic arm was hollow, the apples fell through the tube into a collection basket. The camera scans, fruit detection and the movement of the telescopic arm were controlled and coordinated by a computer.


4.3) Sheep shearing robot developed by the Australian Wool Company (AWC) in 1979

The robot was tested and tried for two and half years. It was controlled by an HP 21MX-E minicomputer that featured a 256 kB memory card and a display. The robot's sensors transmitted an analog signal to the computer's digital interface. It took the machine ten minutes to shear a sheep weighing 30–45 kg and get 80 % of the wool.


4.4) Cucumber sorting robot developed by Mitsubishi Electric Corporation

The cucumbers moved on a white background to create sufficient contrast for a scanning camera with the resolution of 1024 pixels. Different shapes of cucumbers and unwanted reflections on the cucumber surface, dirt or water droplets caused various difficulties. The machine sorted 36,000 cucumbers per hour; the conveyor speed was 23 m per second. Computer vision was provided by Reticon Modem MC520Y Matrix Camera (100 x 100 px), Reticon Model LC110 Line Scan Camera (256 px) and Reticon Model RS520-08 Controller. In addition, the machine featured an Intel Series III Development System computing unit with 1 MB memory, a DMA controller, colour display, and 22MB disk.


4.5) Autonomous harvester

In 1981 Ito Nobutaka introduced a microcomputer-controlled harvester. It was an upgrade of the earlier autonomous harvester developed in 1976 by Iseki. Despite successful tests, the harvester was not launched on the market due to its complicated maintenance and high purchase price.


5) Smart farm

In the past generations of farmers used to depend on their knowledge and experience. They had to check the fields to find out where the soil was fertile, where weeds were overgrowing, where water was being held, etc., and community depended on their skills. The development of industry in the 20th century opened the way for widespread use of chemicals and mechanization of agriculture. As a result, farming became more efficient, but also more costly, wasteful and less environmentally friendly. Precision farming and smart farms represent a way back to the roots. Such farming is economical and environmentally friendly as it employs precision management, accurate local interventions and digital management. The future of smart farms is based on artificial intelligence that is able to learn from the data it collects, thereby preventing mistakes and offering optimal solutions at all stages of production.


Farm management

All data is available via cloud solutions on mobile phones or computers.


Automatic recording of work

Provides and overview of the movement of use of machinery and equipment.


Maps for variable applications

Maps with vegetation indexes are essential for the management of water and fertilisers.


Soil probes

Soil probes provide information about the soil moisture and temperature in several layers below the ground as well as above the surface.


Leaf wetness sensors

This technology monitors crop wetness and provides immediate information about the hydration of the crops.


Weather stations 

Wireless weather stations collect information and can text or email alerts in the event of sudden weather changes.


Monitoring of animal movement

Collars and tags equipped with GPS and RFID technologies monitor grazing animals, locate them in case the animals stray, and protect them from theft.


Attendance system

Attendance system provides identification of machine operators and collects data on working hours and employee performance.


Field navigation

The navigation facilitates orientation in the fields, especially at night. It enables accurate application of fertiliser and protective spraying.


Legal records

These are immediately accessible records of information required by the law, such as logs of fuel consumption, consumption of fertiliser and crop protection agents, or sowing methods.


Crop probes

Crop probes are rod or robe probes used to monitor the stored crops. The probes report changes in temperature and moisture.


5.1) 360 SOILSCAN™

The 360 SOILSCAN™ is a portable instrument for soil nitrate-nitrogen analysis that can measure the nitrate-nitrogen content in soil quickly and easily. The device has a built-in ion-selective electrode that analyses the sample within 5 minutes. The measurement output is the nitrate-nitrogen content in units of mg/kg.

Leading Farmers CZ, a.s.


5.2) Trapview

The trap uses the latest technologies (high resolution cameras, GPS, modem, solar panel to power the battery, etc.). The device takes images of the inside of the trap and then detects the pest. Images from the traps are regularly sent to the computer. The software application is set up to identify up to 30 pest species.

Leading Farmers CZ, a.s.


5.3) Yara N-Sensor
Yara N-Sensor is a tractor-mounted tool that allows farmers to measure a crop’s nitrogen requirement as the tractor passes across the field and to vary the fertilizer application rate accordingly. N-Sensor ensures that the right and optimal rate of fertilizer is applied at each individual part of the field. It has become the benchmark technology for precision agriculture.
5.4) Tractor cab section

 Technická fakulta ČZU



The device produces a dynamic soil compaction curve depending on how deep it is inserted in the soil. It is equipped with a GPS and a SIM card for recording the values which are then transferred to the web interface. This makes it possible to create custom compaction maps at various depths and then customize the tillage technology as required.

Technická fakulta ČZU


5.6) Drone eBee SQ

The drone's fixed wing design with a multispectral sensor allows it to detect areas where vegetation is under stress. While flying over the field, the drone records data in four spectral zones and also takes an image from the visible RGB part of the spectrum.

GEOTRONICS Praha, s.r.o.


5.7) Veris iScan

The device collects data to perform precision sowing, and it monitors the amount of nitrogen in the soil. It can also produce maps that track soil variability by measuring the electrical conductivity of the soil, or by measuring the soil reflectivity at two wavelengths.

Leading Farmers CZ, a.s.


5.8) AG DATA Meteo pro II

The station features sensors monitoring temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind speed and direction, as well as a heated pluviometer for measuring precipitation.

AG DATA, s.r.o.


5.9) Crop rod probe

The probe has 3 sensors that monitor temperature and humidity. The 19000 mAh battery can keep the device running for one year, the device has a IP44 protection. The collected data is sent wirelessly to a server. Monitoring interval: 5/15/30/60/120 minutes.

AG DATA, s.r.o.


5.10) Wile 500

The digital probe hygrometer for measuring moisture and temperature is equipped with a stainless-steel probe. The device measures quickly and accurately and is highly durable. It is used for immediate detection of temperature and moisture levels of hay, silage and haylage.

Leading Farmers CZ, a.s.


6) Robotic farm

The world's first robotic farm was developed in the 1970s by the Agricultural Research Centre of the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fishery in Tsukuba (Japan). The main feature of the farm was a bridge crane that moved on tracks along the field. It was equipped with a rotary drawbar, planting equipment and spray application equipment. Water and liquid fertiliser were also applied via the crane. All activities were monitored from the headquarters via a television camera. The signal between the central computer and the crane passed through a fibre optic cable to minimise interference. There were 131 signals transmitted via 24 channels. The robotic system was also recommended for greenhouses.


6) Phenotyping robot

The principle of the bridge crane was also used to deesign a phenotyping robot made by the German company LemnaTec GmbH. This "scanalyzer" was completed in 2016 at the Maricopa Agricultural Center (The University of Arizona). Moving over a 200-meter-long field, it is the largest robot of its kind in the world. The device uses non-invasive methods to help determine how plants are coping with various stresses, e.g. the drought. The data is then evaluated and used not only by breeders or researchers, but also in the agrochemical industry in the development of anti-stress agents.


7) Alga Oasis

Alga Oasis resembles a plant and presents the working principle of a photobioreactor, a device used to cultivate unicellular algae. The products of the photobioreactor can be utilized in scientific research, the pharmaceutical industry, the food industry or the production of fuels. The author transforms these principles into an art object placed in a public space. The delicate object not only has an aesthetic value but it also highlights the importance of algae in the production of atmospheric oxygen and other possible uses.

Between science and art

Alga Oasis was created for the Institute of Microbiology of the Czech Academy of Sciences (CAS) by sculptor and conceptual artist Michal Kohút. The collaboration between the artist and the CAS started with a competition with the assignment to present the photobioreactor as a futuristic vision that would introduce the essence of algae production technology to the public. The concept is based on the idea that algae reactors will one day be integrated into the urban environment. The instructions further required the exhibit to be interactive and didactic.


7.1) Exhibit design

7.2) Connecting the water and compressed air distribution system to the distributor at the bottom of the exhibit

7.3) Assembly of fittings for the water and compressed air supply from the distributor to the individual glass tubes of the exhibit

7.4) Soldering the glass tubes

7.5) Wiring the technology

7.6) Soldering the didactic panel – RGB LED backlighting with a single low-resolution display function

7.7) Soldering the didactic panel

7.8) Completed didactic panel showing algae biotechnology products


7.9) Exhibit displayed outside the Czech National Pavilion at the International EXPO in Dubai

7.10) Entrance to the Dubai EXPO

7.11) Author Michal Kohút installing glass tubes

7.12) Partially assembled exhibit

7.13) Completed exhibit at the Czech pavilion at the International EXPO in Dubai

7.14) Tubes filled with water

7.15) Glass tubes illuminated with LEDs and filled with water and bubbles

7.16) Bubble production induced by human presence


7.2) RFID ear tags

The RFID ear tags are used for electronic identification and monitoring of animals. Operation requires an RFID reader. Communication between the devices is wireless.

DooWa Technology Co. Ltd


7.3) Lely Vector

Lely Vector is a robot that was first introduced in 2012. The machine provides a constant and automatic supply of feed for the cattle. The machine is equipped with ultrasonic sensors that keep it away from obstacles. The machine receives the feed in the so-called kitchen. One feeding robot can handle up to 300 animals, divided into up to 16 groups. Data from the robots is transmitted to a computer or mobile phone.



7.4) Lely Discovery slurry vacuum cleaner

This is a robot that cleans the livestock stables. The daily capacity of the machine is an area of 500 m2 or 100 cows. Orientation in the space is provided by ultrasonic sensors, impact sensor and an electronic compass.



7.5) DeLaval SCB swinging cow brush

The brush rotates at a speed that is best for the animal and swings freely in all directions. The machine turns on automatically when the animal approaches the brush.

DeLaval, s.r.o.


7.6) Lely Juno 

Lely Juno is a robotic feed dispenser. Unlike Lely Vector, it does not carry any feed. Its operation does not require any modification of the stalls.




The company KUHN introduced the fully autonomous mixing and feeding robot AURORA in 2020. The robot requires almost no modifications of the utilities.



7.8) T-Moov 

This autonomous robot made by Tibot Technologies is an upgraded and modified version of the Spoutnic robot.

Tibot Technologies


7.9) Spoutnic NAV 

The robot made by the French company Tibot Technologies moves autonomously in poultry houses and prompts the flock to move. This reduces the workload of collecting eggs outside the nest. The robot is also designed to aerate the litter.

Tibot Technologies




Algae and cyanobacteria represent a very diverse group of organisms that includes single-celled species around 1 μm in size, as well as freshwater and marine species that can be up to several metres long. Algae are photosynthetic organisms, which means that they need light and carbon dioxide to grow. Unlike plants, they have no roots, stems or leaves and are characterised by a simple cellular organisation.



The main reason for the current popularity of microscopic algae is their nutritional value. The high content of valuable nutrients – such as proteins, amino acids, carbohydrates, essential unsaturated fatty acids and a number of vitamins – makes algae ideal food supplements. Algae can serve as a source of omega-3 fatty acids (EPA, DHA) or carotenoids (lutein, astaxanthin). As such they can be used not only as food supplements, but also as feed in artificial fish or shrimp farms, or in cosmetics. The most commonly used species are Arthrospira (commercial name Spirulina), Chlorella, Haematococcus and Dunaliella salina.



Biological control makes it possible to abandon old technological (chemical) interventions with their undesirable effects on human health, while at the same time strengthening the resistance of crops to drought or disease. Thanks to machine vision technology, it is possible to carry out timely crop protection and precise targeting of fertilisation or spraying in the right place, or to identify various types of plant stress. Biocontrol thus contributes to a greater efficiency in precision farming. The technological approach is not in opposition to the biological one, but they can be used in synergy.



Biological control is a method that uses a living organism to regulate or eliminate unwanted plant pests and pathogens, while posing no threat to the environment or humans. In addition to the direct action of the organism (e.g. predation), the stimulating effect of biological control on the production and immune system of the host plant is often used.

Modern methods of biological control in agriculture include the use of micro-organisms and, in recent years, also the combination of the biocontrol properties of beneficial micro-organisms with the possibility to use them as biofertilisers.

For example, the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens G20-18 can produce plant hormones (cytokinins) which have been shown to increase properties that protect Virginia tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) and thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana) from bacterial pathogens.



The ability to produce plant hormones has also been demonstrated in microalgae. The use of these nutrient-rich photosynthetic micro-organisms would, in addition to their hormonal protective effect, make it possible to reduce the use of synthetic fertilisers and replace them with organic microalgae biofertilisers.

Collective of authors Department of Adaptive Biotechnologies, contact: Jan Červený (cerveny.j@czechglobe.cz)


8.1) Cells of the microscopic alga Haematococcus pluvialis with the incipient production of the red dye astaxanthin used in the production of food supplements or fish feed, photo by RNDr. Kateřina Sukačová, Ph.D.

8.2) Green cells of the alga Haematococcus pluvialis, photo by RNDr. Kateřina Sukačová, Ph.D.

8.3) Filamentous alga Stigeoclonium sp., photo by RNDr. Kateřina Sukačová, Ph.D.

8.4) Microscopic alga Botryococcus braunii characterised by a high lipid production, photo by RNDr. Kateřina Sukačová, Ph.D.

8.5) Infected leaf of tobacco


9) Bioplastics

Bioplastics are polymeric materials derived from natural renewable resources, and they the opposite of petrochemical-based polymers. Not all bioplastics degrade well in nature. A biodegradable polymer is broken down by the action of living organisms (bacteria, yeast, fungi, algae) and forms a harmless product. Furthermore, the compostable polymer takes very short time to decompose.


Degradable polymer

This material (oxo-degradable polymer with added pro-oxidant) breaks down into microplastics and puts a strain on the environment. In the past it was used, among other things, to make shopping bags for supermarket chains. Since July 2021 there has been a ban on single-use plastics and products made from oxo-degradable polymers and single-use plastic food and drink containers made from expanded polystyrene.



hail nets

against birds



for harvesting olives and nuts


Pipes, irrigation, drainage

water tanks

canal lining

irrigation pipes

drainage pipes





fertiliser bags

agrochemical containers


liquid storage tanks




silage sheets

fumigation films

bale twine

bale wrappers


strings and ropes





mulching foils

foils for vineyards and orchards


9.1) Production of plastics in million tonnes, year 2015 by industrial sector

9.2) Global production of bioplastics in 2020

9.3) Biodegradable and non biodegradable plastics

9.4) Global production of plastics in million tonnes for the years 1950–2020

9.5) Global production of bioplastics in 2019, by material type

The European standard classifies plastics made from fossils that are biodegradable as bioplastics. This includes the copolymer PBAT.


10) 3D printing

Long before the invention of 3D printing, a reproduction technology called photosculpture was used for precision model making. The method was invented and patented by the painter and photographer François Willème in 1860. The first documented attempts at 3D printing are associated with the Japanese designer Hideo Kodama, who in 1981 introduced a system for layering light-sensitive resin. In 1984 stereolithography (SLA) was patented, and in 1987 Chuck Hull introduced the first commercial 3D printer. In 1988 Carl Deckard from the University of Texas launched Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) technology. The first commercial SLS 3D printer was introduced in 2006. Since 2010 3D printing has expanded massively and is now used in construction and food industries.


10.1) Patented photo projections for creation of photosculptures, 1860

10.2) Chuck Hall's SLA-1 3D printer from 1987

Stereolithography is a process in which liquid polymer is solidified by using laser radiation. This technology is one of the most precise but also most expensive on the market.


10.3) Sketch of a 3D printer connection on patent sheet No. 5 121 329 from 1992

Fused deposition modelling (FDM) printing technology (later known as FFF) was invented and patented by Steven Scott Crump. The process involves molten material applied in thin layers.

10.4) ICE Industrial Services

In 2021 the company ICE Industrial Services based in Žďár nad Sázavou put into operation a 3D printer developed for the construction industry. The 3D concrete printing technology can create rough constructions up to 5 times faster than conventional technology of formwork, and it can save up to 70 % of the material. The aim of the project is to increase efficiency, automatization and sustainability in the construction industry. ICE Industrial Services have also initiated the founding of EIMAC (European Institute for Materials, Automation and Construction) to create a space for collaboration between industries and institutions and to promote innovation.


10) Examples of food 3D printers


10.5) Fab@Home

The first multi-material 3D printer, which as introduced in 2006, was also the first device that could print food items such as chocolate, biscuits or cheese products.


10.6) Delta 2040 3D printer and Clay extruder kit 2.0

The 3D printer made by the Italian company WASP can print items in dimensions of 140 x 140 x 400 mm. It is suitable for printing cereal snacks of various porosity and hardness.


10.7) Foodini

Foodini is a printer made by the Spanish company Natural Machines that started operation in 2012. It took 5 years to develop the printer that creates and decorates sweets and cakes.


10.8) Ripple Maker II

First introduced in 2015, the Ripple Maker uses food dye to print patterns and text into the foam of beverages such as coffee or beer.


10.9) PancakeBot 2.0

The printer made by the Norwegian company PancakeBot prints and makes pancakes. The maximum print size is 445 x 210 x 15 mm.


10.10) FoodBot

FoodBot is a Chinese 3D printer adapted for printing chocolate, potato pastry, or biscuits decorated with icing sugar, marzipan, cheese and jam.


10.11) Focus

First introduced in 2015, Focus is a printer made by the Dutch company byFLow. The maximum printing dimensions are 208 × 228 × 150 mm. It is designed for printing with several types of paste.


11) Vertical systems

The Hanging Gardens of Babylon were probably created in the 7th century BC. They are mentioned by the ancient Greek historians Strabo and Diodorus of Sicily. The gardens were connected to an elaborate irrigation system based on gravitation – once the plants have been irrigated, the remaining water trickled down the walls into canals.


Reviving the concept of vertical farming

The idea of vertical farming was revived in 1999 by the American microbiologist Dickson Despommier from Columbia University. With his students he designed a skyscraper-sized growing facility that can produce enough food for 50,000 people.



The development of aeroponics was initiated in the 1990s by NASA. The plan was to develop platforms for growing plants off the planet Earth. Aeroponics uses neither liquid nor solid medium. The nutrient solution evaporates into air chambers where the plants are suspended.



The term “aquaponics” is a blend of the words aquaculture and hydroponics. Aquaponics is a system of hydroponic plant cultivation that uses nutrient-rich water from fish farming that is free of fertilisers and chemicals. This system uses 90 % less water and boasts ten times higher yield.



Hydroponics means growing plants in a nutrient solution without using soil. The principles of modern hydroponics were described by the German botanists Julius von Sachs and Wilhelm Knop in 1859–1875. The modern concept of vertical farming was popularised in 1999 by Dickson Despommier, a microbiologist and professor at Columbia University.

11.1) Hanging Gardens of Babylon by Ferdinand Knab, year 1886

11.2) Book The Vertical farm by Dickson Despommier

11.3) Aquaponic farm in Great Britain

11.4) Iron Ox – an aeroponic robotic farm

11.5) Hydroponically grown lettuce, 2016

11.6) FLOWER COMPANY – a Czech company promoting vertical farming and installing green walls in interiors since 2008

11.7) A vertical hydroponic farm on the roof of the shopping centre Nový Smíchov (Prague)

11.8) FeelGreens – a vertical farm from Břeclav

11.9) LUKO organic – a vertical farm from Ostrava that produces microgreens


Hydroponic farms in the CR

Farma pro všechny, GreeenTech = Herbafabrica, Growlight, Future Farming, ForestBit = Pražskej salát, Flenexa aquaponie Přáslavice, Gardenix Zápy, Ingreen, Fosfa, Ráječek, Jižní Morava Tvrdonice, Farma Mutěnice, AGRO Maryša Velké Němčice, Farma Kožichovice, Chornice u Jevíčka, Zemědělské družstvo Haňovice, Farma Smržice, Agro Kadaň, Tušimice, Farma Bezdínek Dolní Lutně, Kostelec na Hané, Feel Greens, Gardenauts Chotěboř, Farm Plane (Fruitisimo) Osov


12) Genetics

Genetics is a science whose foundations were laid by the naturalist Johann Gregor Mendel (1822–1884) from Hynčice in Silesia. The term genetics itself was coined in 1906 by the British scientist William Bateson, who also translated Mendel's works into English.


Mendel’s discovery

The fact that organisms inherit various characteristics was known long before Mendel. But none of the breeders and naturalists, including Charles Darwin, knew exactly what was inherited and how. Mendel discovered the laws of inheritance through cultivation experiments, mathematical modelling and combinatorics. He chose seven traits that are inherited by a system of complete dominance and then experimented to confirm the principles of heredity.


Laws of heredity

law of uniformity of hybrids

law of splitting in the offspring of hybrids

law of independence

law of segregation of alleles

law of independent combination of alleles


Genotype or phenotype?

A genotype is a set of instructions encoded in a collection of genetic information stored in a DNA sequence. It determines the characteristics of an organism as well as its type.

In addition to the genotype, the phenotype monitors the interaction between epigenetics and the environment. The phenotype then conveys how these factors influence the appearance of an organism.


Charles Darwin (1809–1882)            Johann Gregor Mendel (1822–1884)


Two men and two theories?

Johann Gregor Mendel and Charles Darwin are among the most important natural scientists of the 19th century. Mendel knew Darwin's work. There is no evidence that Mendel rejected Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection. Mendel's publication describing the laws of inheritance was found in Darwin's estate, but it was uncut. The complexity of the hereditary information Mendel had uncovered, which would have given Darwin's theory of evolution an entirely new and deeper meaning, remained unknown to the British scientist until his death.


History of plant transformation

1983 tobacco

1984 carrots

1985 colza

1986 tomatoes

1987 rye, sunflowers, potatoes

1988 cauliflower, celeriac, rice, soybeans

1989 apple trees

1990 chrysanthemum, citrus fruit, clover, papaya, strawberry

1991 carnation, kiwi, melon, plum

1992 sugar beet, wheat

1993 peas, barley


5 generations of transgenic plants

1st generation – protection against diseases, pests and weeds

2nd generation – resistance to abiotic stresses (drought, cold, soil salinity)

3rd generation – plants with higher nutritional value (preferred fatty acid composition, modified amount

of vitamins)

4th generation – ecologically preferred plants (phytase; bioremediation)

5th generation – replacement of fossil fuels, raw materials for industry (production of ethanol, biodiesel, starch, fibre, dyes, lubricants, biovaccines, biopharmaceauticals)


12.2) Genetically modified (GM) crops in 2017 – worldwide

12.3) Development of areas and number of GM maize producers in the CZ

YEAR AREA (ha) Number of producers
2005 150ha 51 producers
2006 1 290ha 82 producers
2007 5 000ha 126 producers
2008 8 380ha 167 producers
2009 6 480ha 121 producers
2010 4 680ha

82 producers

2011 5 090ha 64 producers
2012 3 050ha 41 producers
2013 2 560ha 31 producers
2014 1 754ha 18 producers
2015 997ha 11 producers
2016 75ha 1 producers
2017 0ha 0 producers
2018 0ha 0 producers


14) PROB 10

PROB 10 was a Czechoslovak industrial manipulator designed for automated working, bending, die casting, welding, and pressing. It was manufactured by the national company ČMZ Strakonice. The robot features six hydraulic motion units controlled and operated electrically. The electronic control system was based on a programming diode matrix with 60 programming steps. The robots were also used for the production of plough blades in Vítkovice Ironworks.

Technical Museum in Brno

14.1) Presentation of the industrial robot PROB 10 at an exhibition in Brno in February 1984

SOkA Strakonice


15) Plough blade

Plow blade produced by Vítkovice Ironworks in 1982, donated to the National Museum of Agriculture (NZM) by Cylinders Holding a.s.


15.1) Quality control of plough blades made in Vítkovice Ironworks

Vítkovice Machinery Group Archive


16) ELIZA 

ELIZA is one of the first programs that address the issue of artificial intelligence. It was developed by Professor Joseph Weizenbaum in 1964–1966. ELIZA is a chatbot that simulates communication with a psychotherapist (in English). The program runs on a personal computer with an Intel 286 processor and it was assembled in JZD Slušovice in 1989. Try chatting with ELIZA!



16.1) Joseph Weizenbaum, 1966


17) Primoco UAV One 150

The UAV (unmanned aerial vehicle) One 150 has a maximum take-off weight of 150 kg. Flight time is up to 15 hours with a range of up to 200 km from the ground control station and a total flying range of 2,000 km. This endurance combined with a cruising speed of 100–150 km/h places the Primoco UAV – compared to electric aircraft models – among the top UAVs due to its considerable performance, while keeping the operating costs to a minimum. The One 150 UAV boasts a 30 kg payload and can operate at high altitudes (up to 3,300 m above sea level). The combination of a useful load and operation at 2,000 m or higher allows for longer missions.


18) Tertill

Tertill is a representative of cheap garden robots designed for weeding flower and vegetable beds. To construct it, the designers used the knowledge gained in the development of robotic vacuum cleaners. Tertill moves autonomously in a delimited bed. It is driven by electricity and recharged via a solar panel. The Tertill robot traverses the terrain using four inclined wheels. Weed is removed by a nylon blade positioned underneath the machine.


19) ROBOT K-3



The remote-controlled slope mower SPIDER ILD02 is made by the Czech company DVOŘÁK – svahové sekačky s.r.o. The machine was first introduced in 2005, it has been mass produced since 2006 and has undergone a number of upgrades. The mower was developed for the maintenance of varied and inaccessible terrain with a slope of up to 60 degrees. It can handle the removal of self-sown trees, ruderal vegetation and grass that has not been mown for a long time. It is also widely used in moderate terrain for the maintenance of park areas. All wheels of the mower have the ability to rotate 360 degrees. The mower is powered by a 726 cc Kawasaki FS691 internal combustion engine, the dimensions of the machine are 164 × 143 × 92 cm.

DVOŘÁK – svahové sekačky s.r.o.


21) SPIDER Autonomous 2.0

The SPIDER Autonomous 2.0 mower is an upgrade of the SPIDER ILD02 EFI model. The new model features a precision control technology which ensures mowing without the need for manual remote control. The machine is controlled by satellite with a control accuracy of 1 cm. Safe operation of the mower is ensured by sensors on the barriers and buffers located on the sides of the machine. The precision control system allows it to mow for up to 10 hours without changing the operator or for 24 hours with refuelling. The mower has been developed for maintenance around photovoltaic power stations, but it can also be used in agriculture, including fruit growing, viniculture, crop spraying, fruit ripeness detection and many other areas. The mower can also mow any defined area and it can cut predefined shapes and ornaments. The dimensions of the machine are 164 × 143 × 82.5 cm.



22) FarmBot Genesis 1.6 (RS)

Founded in 2014, the company FarmBot (USA) produces and develops gardening robots. FarmBot Genesis can plant more than 30 types of plants, it can weed, water and fertilise. The robot documents the condition of the plants at all times and transmits the data to an app on a computer or mobile phone. To operate, the robot needs electricity, Internet connection and water supply. Alternatively, the robot can be powered by solar panels and batteries. It is constructed primarily from aluminium pressed parts and it is equipped with V-Slot® wheels and NEMA 17 metal motors. It features Arduino Mega motherboard and Raspberry Pi control unit. The plastic components can be printed on a 3D printer. The machine can be controlled vi an app on a mobile phone, tablet or computer.



23) Lely Astronaut

A milking robot made by the Dutch company Lely (Maassluis). The prototype of the robot was introduced in 1992. The model on display was made in 2005. The machine works autonomously. It tracks the time since the last milking and if enough time has passed, the robot provides the cow with the necessary amount of feed. Each teat is then cleaned with mechanical brushes. With the help of a laser, the udder is targeted and the units are attached to the teats. This is followed by milk sampling and an assessment of whether the animal is not suffering from mastitis. If the animal is sick, the milk does not go into the tank with the safe milk. Once the cow is milked, the teat attachments are automatically cleaned with disinfectant. In 2017 there were 247 milking robots [MJ1] in operation in the Czech Republic.

Technical Museum in Brno


25) Photobioreactor

This tubular photobioreactor was made by the Czech company Photon Systems Instruments, spol. s r.o. and is used at the Global Change Research Institute of AV ČR. Microscopic algae used for food processing purposes can be grown in large open tanks or in closed photobioreactors. These reactors are equipped with measuring devices that allow real-time monitoring of algal growth as well as the physiological parameters of algal cultures.

Global Change Research Institute of AV ČR


27) Choco printer

Choco printer was custom-made by Čokotiskárna for the National Museum of Agriculture. The 3D printer is made of an aluminium frame, ABS and PLA plastics and steel. The dimensions are 596 mm (width) x 800 mm (depth) x 600 mm (height). It uses FDM (Fused Deposition Modeling) technology to print chocolate designs up to 150 x 150 x 150 mm.



28) Vertical system 1SM

The Ostrava-based company VAKPLAST was founded in 2016 to develop and produce vertical hydroponic systems. The exhibit uses the Nutrient Film Technique (NFT) arranged in a vertical growing system with the nutrient solution flowing to the plants. There is no medium, the roots are placed directly in the water that passes through a drainage system over the entire surface of each successive container, thus also oxygenating the plant, all without light (to eliminate algae formation).



29) Vertical system 5SV

The 5SV is currently the largest and most efficient vertical system made by the company VAKPLAST. It needs approximately 2.5 m² to grow plants that would otherwise need an area of 9 m². The pentagonal shape allows an economical use of light, with each light illuminating up to three times the area of a standard horizontal system. It is easy to maintain and offers a good access to the plants. Unlike with systems using media (clay, rockwool, expanded clay, etc.), the 5SV system produces little waste. The only waste is the root system of the plants, which can be removed after opening the lid and composted. The growing containers can be easily removed and rinsed. The 5SV system can grow up to 123 larger plants (bush tomatoes, chilli peppers, etc.) or 245 smaller plants, e.g. basil, oregano.



30) The hexagonal planters

The hexagonal planters were created from fast-setting thixotropic cement mixtures using a unique innovative 3D printing method. The method allows us to employ organic shapes inspired by nature that are pleasing to the eye and blend easily into the environment. The planters are visually attractive, but strong and durable at the same time.

ICE Industrial Services


31) Agrointelli Robotti

ROBOTTI is equipped with RTK-GPS and carries the implement in the centre. Therefore, no weight compensation is needed. The implement does not swing and the robot knows exactly where it is. ROBOTTI uses a 3-point hitch that can lift up to 1250 kg allowing for ROBOTTI to be able to perform more operations on a farmers’s field. This allows the farmer to use the implements already on the market today. ROBUST ROBOTTI is autonomously controlled by a computer and does not depend on a human driver. Based on your inputs, it calculates and navigates itself and follows an optimised route in the field.

Leading Farmers


32) ZU1 food processor

The ZU1 robot is an example of using the word robot for a device that does not meet the definition. The ZU1 food processor was first manufactured by Zbrojovka Brno in 1948. The device had 16 attachments for kneading, whisking, grinding, pressing or e.g. ice cream preparation. The price at the time of launch was 8,300 CZK. At that time the average wage of an industrial worker was 725 CZK.





33.1) DJI Phantom 4 Pro+ drone

The quadcopter features an upgraded version of DJI 4K camera with a 20-megapixel CMOS sensor and mechanical shutter. The camera is stabilised by a 3-axis hinge and includes an integrated Lightbridge system for image transmission, video positioning system, anti-collision sensors, 3 flight modes and Flight Autonomy system. The drone detects and avoids obstacles in 5 different directions.

TELINK, spol. s r.o.


33.2) Trimble AgGPS CFX-750 DGPS autopilot

The system is mounted on the steering hydraulics of the machine. Using GPS data, it automatically steers the machine along the desired path, whether it is a straight line, curve, central pivot or a combination of all of the above.

Leading Farmers CZ, a.s.


33.3) Ullmanna weeder module

Ullmanna is a family-run technological start-up that offers a uniquely balanced approach to technology and agriculture in the field of weeding. By combining machine learning and vision, the weeder can recognize each crop and efficiently control the weeding blades. It can do all of this very quickly and in confined conditions, significantly reducing the need for the use of herbicides. The use of the machine also means that more crops can be grown on organic farms, because it reduces strenuous manual work.



34) Victoria Robotorum 

Victory of the Robots is a sculpture made by the Czech artist Jaroslav Róna. The composition depicts a robot holding the skull of the last man on Earth. The sculpture cautions the human race against self-destruction and at the same time it refers to spectacular archaeological monuments of extinct civilisations.

Jaroslav Róna